1. The complete title of one (or more) paper(s) published in the open literature describing the work that the author claims describes a human-competitive result;
Explaining quantum correlations through evolution of causal models
2. The name, complete physical mailing address, e-mail address, and phone number of EACH author of EACH paper(s);
Robin Harper
Level 4,
Sydney Nanoscience Hub (Building A31)
Physics Road
The University of Sydney NSW 2006
robin.harper@sydney.edu.au
61 (0) 2 9351 2222
Robert Chapman
RMIT University,
GPO Box 2476,
Melbourne VIC 3001
Australia
s3559347@student.rmit.edu.au
+61 3 9925 1891
Christopher Ferrie
Centre for Quantum Software and Information
University of Technology Sydney
City campus
15 Broadway
Ultimo NSW 2007
Christopher.Ferrie@uts.edu.au
+61 2 9514 2000
Christopher Granade
Level 4,
Sydney Nanoscience Hub (Building A31)
Physics Road
The University of Sydney NSW 2006
christopher.granade@sydney.edu.au
61 (0) 2 9351 2222
Richard Kueng
Institute for Theoretical Physics
University of Cologne
Zülpicher Straße 77
D-50937 Köln
Phone: +49 (0)221 470 1037
rkueng@thp.uni-koeln.de
Daniel Naoumenko
Level 4,
Sydney Nanoscience Hub (Building A31)
Physics Road
The University of Sydney NSW 2006
daniel.naoumenko@sydney.edu.au
61 (0) 2 9351 2222
Steven T. Flammia
Level 4,
Sydney Nanoscience Hub (Building A31)
Physics Road
The University of Sydney NSW 2006
steven.flammia@sydney.edu.au
61 (0)2 9351 5115
Alberto Peruzzo
RMIT University,
GPO Box 2476,
Melbourne VIC 3001
Australia
+61 3 9925 1891
alberto.peruzzo@rmit.edu.au
3. The name of the corresponding author (i.e., the author to whom notices will be sent concerning the competition);
Robin Harper
4. The abstract of the paper(s);
We propose a framework for the systematic and quantitative generalization of Bell's theorem using causal networks. We first consider the multi-objective optimization problem of matching observed data while minimizing the causal effect of nonlocal variables and prove an inequality for the optimal region that both strengthens and generalizes Bell's theorem. To solve the optimization problem (rather than simply bound it), we develop a genetic algorithm treating as individuals causal networks. By applying our algorithm to a photonic Bell experiment, we demonstrate the trade-off between the quantitative relaxation of one or more local causality assumptions and the ability of data to match quantum correlations.
5. A list containing one or more of the eight letters (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, or H) that correspond to the criteria (see above) that the author claims that the work satisfies;
(B) The result is equal to or better than a result that was accepted as a new scientific result at the time when it was published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
(D) The result is publishable in its own right as a new scientific result — independent of the fact that the result was mechanically created.
(E) The result is equal to or better than the most recent human-created solution to a long-standing problem for which there has been a succession of increasingly better human-created solutions.
6. A statement stating why the result satisfies the criteria that the contestant claims (see examples of statements of human-competitiveness as a guide to aid in constructing this part of the submission);
(B) The result is equal to or better than a result that was accepted as a new scientific result at the time when it was published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Previous results had only looked at the ability of quantum correlations to violate the "Bell inequality". In this paper we study how much classical notions of causality need to be “rejected" in order to explain observed quantum correlations. Whilst it was generally accepted that there must exist a tradeoff between the ability to match correlations and the quantative amount of causal influence required no progress had been made by the scientific community in quantifying this. In the paper we provide theoretical confirmation of this correlation together with theoretical bounds, which are not tight. By using a genetic algorithm we were able to map out many dimensions of the departure from classical mechanics that the quantum correlations exhibit. For the first time it was demonstrated that the relationship between matching correlations and the relaxation of one or more bounds relating to 'local reality' appears linear.
(D) The result is publishable in its own right as a new scientific result — independent of the fact that the result was mechanically created.
The resulting relationship, which was mapped out by the GA, between the relaxation of local causality and matching of quantum correlations has potential impacts in many aspects of the study of quantum mechanics including such fields as quantum cryptography. It is a scientifically important result.
(E) The result is equal to or better than the most recent human-created solution to a long-standing problem for which there has been a succession of increasingly better human-created solutions.
All previous attempts at tackling this problem either looked at an extreme end of the "Pareto Front" of the solutions discovered and/or had relatively loose bounds. No one knew what the "Pareto Front" discovered by the GA looked like. In the paper the authors light heartedly term this region - the Edge of Reality - referring to the common terminology ‘local realism’ for a model of physics satisfying Einstein’s relativity. Whilst the results of the genetic algorithm are not rigorous per se (effectively being the best found so far), the models and techniques used have allowed the publication of results better than have been found before and are key in helping to understand generalizations of the standard Bell scenario.
7. A full citation of the paper (that is, author names; publication date; name of journal, conference, technical report, thesis, book, or book chapter; name of editors, if applicable, of the journal or edited book; publisher name; publisher city; page numbers, if applicable);
title = Explaining quantum correlations through evolution of causal models,
author = Harper, Robin and Chapman, Robert J. and Ferrie, Christopher and Granade, Christopher and Kueng, Richard and Naoumenko, Daniel and Flammia, Steven T. and Peruzzo, Alberto
journal = Phys. Rev. A
volume = 95
issue = 4
pages = 042120
numpages = 16
year = 2017
month = Apr
publisher = American Physical Society
doi = 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.042120
url = https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.042120
8. A statement either that "any prize money, if any, is to be divided equally among the co-authors" OR a specific percentage breakdown as to how the prize money, if any, is to be divided among the co-authors;
Any prize money, if any, is to be divided equally among the co-authors.
9. A statement stating why the authors expect that their entry would be the "best," and
The problem at the heart of this paper is the tension between the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics (systems do not have definite properties prior to being measured) and the view that quantum mechanics is incomplete, in the sense that there are hidden (that is, unknown) local variables that govern the action of, say, entangled particles. Bell’s theorem excludes classical concepts of causality, that is the hidden local variable model, and is now a cornerstone of modern physics. Despite the fundamental importance of this theorem, only recently was the first “loophole-free” experiment reported which convincingly verified that we must reject classical notions of causality. The "Edge of Reality" found by the GA in this paper is a step in helping physicists tackle some of the fundamental problems relating to what is "reality" and understanding the very nature of reality itself. By using a GA we were able to construct models that quantify a region which is ruled out by Nature itself.
10. An indication of the general type of genetic or evolutionary computation used, such as GA (genetic algorithms), GP (genetic programming), ES (evolution strategies), EP (evolutionary programming), LCS (learning classifier systems), GE (grammatical evolution), GEP (gene expression programming), DE (differential evolution), etc.
GA/MOEA